Jesus’ Death

In the Gospel of John, there are numerous statements by Jesus foretelling his imminent death (see 12:7; 16:16; 16:28; 18:4) and statements describing his loving willingness to give his life in order to follow God’s salvation plan (see 13:1; 15:13). The prophecy of Caiaphas “that it would be good if one man die for the people” (11:50-52; 18:13) indicates that God’s purpose was being fulfilled. Moreover, when Jesus was handed over to Pilate, he says that Pilate would not have the power to crucify him if it were not given to him from above (19:11). Pilate was acting in accordance with the will and authority of God.

Jesus is described in the Gospel of John as the Lamb of God (1:29, 36). This is sacrificial imagery, and so the significance of Jesus’ death is sacrificial in character. Jesus describes his sacrifice further in 6:51f where he is talking about the bread which he gives for the life of the world is his flesh. In 12:24, Jesus explains that “unless a grain of wheat falls into the earth and dies, it remains alone; but if it dies, it bears much fruit” (ESV). Also, Jesus says, “I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep” (10:11 ESV). These statements are using sacrificial imagery; therefore, Jesus is describing the necessary and vicarious sacrifice of his life that he voluntarily gives in order to redeem the world (Guthrie 458). Jesus’ faithful obedience unto death brings forgiveness, sanctification and eternal life.

The Gospel of John describes the significance of Jesus’ death by emphasizing his exaltation. Several places in the Gospel of John Jesus is described as “being lifted up” or “exalted” (see 3:14-15; 8:28; 12:32-33). This has double meaning because on the one hand Jesus is not being lifted up or exalted to a throne but on a cross, and on the other hand, it is his death on the cross that leads to his exalted glorification. Joel Green explains this motif, as it is presented in the Gospel of John, when he writes, “the life of the son of God is best understood as a journey: He comes from his pre-existent state in heaven, dwells among women and men, then returns to heaven. He who descended from glory must ascend to glory” (162). Jesus’ death is the means by which his exalted return to the Father is accomplished, and at the same time, his lifting up to death on a cross is the ultimate expression of the love of God (3:16) (Green 163).

Works Cited

Green, Joel. “Death of Jesus” in Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels, edited by Joel B. Green, et al. Inter-Varsity Press, 2003. 

Guthrie, Donald. New Testament Theology. Inter-Varsity Press, 1990.

Jesus and the Kingdom of God

After Jerusalem and the temple were destroyed and the Israelites were in exile, the prophet Isaiah prophesied concerning a watchmen that looks out into the distance and sees a messenger that brings good news. Isaiah 52 states, “How beautiful on the mountains are the feet of those who bring good news, who proclaim peace, who bring good tidings, who proclaim salvation, who say to Zion, “Your God reigns!” The good news message is that despite the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple, Israel’s God still reigns as king, and he is going to one day return to the city, take up his throne and bring peace.

When Jesus begins his earthly ministry, he announces the good news about God’s reign, and so the Kingdom of God was central to the his preaching. Luke 8:1 states, “…Jesus traveled about from one town and village to another, proclaiming the good news of the kingdom of God.” Jesus’ message about the kingdom of God surprised everyone because it was not a kingdom that conformed to the worldly standards. It was not a powerful, defeating, successful kingdom in the earthly sense, but rather it was a kingdom “not of this world” (John 18:36). Jesus described an upside down kingdom where the greatest person is the weakest, and the ones who are poor are blessed. Jesus explains that those who inherit the kingdom of God are those who bear its fruit. Matthew 25:34-38 states,

“Then the King will say to those on His right, ‘Come, you who are blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world. ‘For I was hungry, and you gave Me something to eat; I was thirsty, and you gave Me something to drink; I was a stranger, and you invited Me in; naked, and you clothed Me; I was sick, and you visited Me; I was in prison, and you came to Me.’ “Then the righteous will answer Him, ‘Lord, when did we see You hungry, and feed You, or thirsty, and give You something to drink? ‘And when did we see You a stranger, and invite You in, or naked, and clothe You? ‘When did we see You sick, or in prison, and come to You?’ “The King will answer and say to them, ‘Truly I say to you, to the extent that you did it to one of these brothers of Mine, even the least of them, you did it to Me.’ (NIV)

Furthermore, Jesus’ description of the kingdom of God is characterized by responding to evil with love and forgiveness while seeking peace. Jesus said, “Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called children of God” (Matt 5:9).

Jesus understood himself as the king of God’s kingdom, as the promised messianic king from the line of David. In fact, Jesus entered Jerusalem as a king (John 12:12-15), but his kingship is unlike any other. He enters the city riding a donkey revealing the humble servant nature of his kingship. He is a king that delivers and heals his people from spiritual oppression by his suffering and death. He is the eternal king, and his eternal rule and reign should be one’s focus. This is emphasized in the prayerful statement, “Thy kingdom come, thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven” (Matt 6:10).

Thus, the kingdom of God has come near in the kingship of Jesus and will come in fullness at Jesus’ second coming (See Luke 22:18).   

In view of Jesus’ message about the kingdom of God, we should continually submit to his kingship. We should align our lives with God’s eternal kingdom perspective by engaging in behaviors and activities that further his kingdom purposes. Our lives, desires and ambitions must be continually examined in order to be conscious of whether we are operating with a temporal perspective or an eternal perspective.  Are we striving for our own temporal personal kingdom or for the kingdom of God?

Jesus’ Ministry in the Gospel of John

In view of the life and ministry of Jesus, there are many distinguishing characteristics to consider. In fact, Jesus’ ministry was so extensive that this may have inspired the author of the Gospel of John to write, “Jesus did many other things as well. If every one of them were written down, I suppose that even the whole world would not have room for the books that would be written” (John 21:25 NIV). For this discussion, Jesus’ ministry could be narrowed down to his ministry as prophet, priest and king.

First, Jesus’ ministry was a prophetic ministry. Jesus’ own understanding of himself was that of a Spirit anointed prophet (John 3:34) who was a bearer of the word of God (John 7:37-40) and who spoke with authority and divine knowledge (John 2:24-25). Furthermore, Jesus’ miracles testified to his prophetic ministry (John 9:17), and he was recognized as a prophet by those who heard his teaching (John 4:17-19) and witnessed his miracles (John 6:14). The prophet John the Baptist proclaims that Jesus is the greatest prophet (John 1:15).

Second, Jesus’ ministry was a priestly ministry. Jesus is referred to as the “Lamb of God” in the Gospel of John (1:29). Thus, he is likened to a sacrificial lamb that was killed in order to atone for the sins of the people. This sacrifice of a lamb was performed by the high priest who was interceding on behalf of the people and representing them before God. Similarly, Jesus being a fully human high priest represented humanity before God and interceded on their behalf. He is also a fully divine high priest in that he is perfect and without sin. Thus, he did not have to offer sacrifice for his own sin, but rather he made atonement for the sins of humanity by his own sacrificial death (Heb 2:17). When Jesus sacrificed his life, it was a “once for all” atonement (Heb 7:27). Although Jesus fully completed this vital priestly duty, his priestly ministry continues for eternity as he continually intercedes (Heb 7:24-25) and brings people close to God (Heb 10:19-22).

Third, Jesus’ ministry is a kingly ministry. Jesus is the promised messianic king from the line of David. In fact, Jesus entered Jerusalem as a king (John 12:12-15), but his kingship is unlike any other. He enters the city riding a donkey revealing the humble servant nature of his kingship. He is a king that delivers and heals his people from spiritual oppression by his suffering and death. Jesus is the king of the kingdom of God that has come to earth through his life and ministry. At his trial before Pilate, Jesus states, “My kingdom is not of this world” (John 18:36) signifying that the kingdom of God is far greater than any earthly kingdom. The most powerful king subjected himself to the torture and crucifixion by an inferior earthly king in order to fulfill his kingdom mission. Jesus’ death and resurrection established him as an eternal king who rules and reigns over the nations, and in the future, his kingly ministry and kingdom will come in fullness (Phil 2:10-11; Rev 11:15).

Jesus in the Gospel of John

The Gospel of John begins with a prologue (1:1-18) introducing Jesus as the λογος (logos), meaning the “Word.”  The concept of λογος (logos) used as a designation or as “the independent, personified ‘Word’ (of God)” (Bauer et al. 480) is derived from Jewish Wisdom literature and has parallels in Hellenistic literature (Guthrie 326). The Gospel of John connects the idea of λογος (logos) with the personification of Wisdom in the Hebrew scriptures and then describes Jesus in a similar way demonstrating that he “is the true manifestation of the Wisdom of God” (Pate et al. 164).

The Gospel of John emphasizes the λογος (logos) concept in order to describe Jesus’ relationship with the Father. John 1:1 starts with “In the beginning…” which alludes to Genesis 1:1 “In the beginning God created….” This describes the  pre-creation state where God created everything with his divine words, and so when the full statement of John 1:1 is read as “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God,” it is describing the pre-existing λογος (logos) and clearly stating the deity of the λογος (logos) while remaining distinguished from God─the Father (i.e. the Word was with God) (Guthrie 327). This Divine λογος (logos) becomes Jesus who is God─the Son and who continues in an eternal relationship the Father.

Furthermore, the Gospel of John emphasizes the λογος (logos) concept in order to explain Jesus’ relationship with humans. John 1:14 states, “The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the one and only Son, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth” (NIV). This shows that in the incarnate Word, God has returned to his people and pitched his tent among them which alludes back to Exodus 33 where God tabernacled with the Israelites; therefore, as the Israelites witnessed the glory of the Lord fill the tabernacle, the people saw the glory of the incarnate Word─Jesus (Pate et al. 167).

Closely related to the emphasis on the λογος (logos) in the Gospel of John is the emphasis on Jesus’ miracles and on the messianic titles given to him by people which point to Jesus’ divinity. Furthermore, Jesus’ use of “I AM” statements connects the Hebrew covenant name for God (Exod 3:4) with himself, and then he calls God his Father which meant that he was equal with God.

Another emphasis about Jesus that is unique to the Gospel of John is the portrayal of Jesus as the “Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world” (1:29 cf. 1:36). Thus, he is likened to a sacrificial lamb of the Jewish Passover that was killed in order to atone for the sins of the people. This sacrifice of a lamb was performed by the high priest who was interceding on behalf of the people and representing them before God. The concept of Jesus as the Lamb of God, the reference to the Jewish Passover throughout the book (see 2:13; 6:4; 11:55, 12:1), and the passion narrative of Jesus express the wonder of the Gospel─ “that God himself provides the offering which humankind itself cannot provide” (Marshall 434).

Works Cited

Bauer, Walter et al. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature.  Chicago, IL : University of Chicago Press, 1957.

Guthrie, Donald. New Testament Theology. Inter-Varsity Press, 1990.

Marshall, I.H. “Lamb of God.” Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels, edited by Joel B. Green, et al. Inter-Varsity Press, 2003, pp. 432-434.

Pate, C. Marvin et al. The Story of Israel: a Biblical Theology. Inter-Varsity Press, 2004.

The Synoptic Gospels and Jesus

Based on the literary structure of the Gospel of Matthew consisting of five distinct sections of Jesus’ teaching,  Jesus is emphasized as a teacher in comparison to Moses (traditional author of the five books of the Law). Matthew presents Jesus as a new Moses-like figure who gives authoritative teaching. Jesus is presented as greater than Moses because he will save his people from their sin and initiate a new covenant with them (Blomberg 146).

Matthew uses the phrase Son of David throughout his Gospel, which refers to the Jewish conventional expectation of a kingly Messiah who would come from the house of David. With this designation, Matthew emphasizes Jesus as the King of the Kingdom of God. Jesus is the promised King from the Davidic line, and he will carry out his rule and reign for all eternity. He will deliver his people from bondage and gather them into his eternal kingdom. He will restore and heal his people from all their afflictions and sins (Blomberg 146).     

The Gospel of Mark portrays Jesus’ mighty deeds in the first half and his suffering and death in the second half. The focus is “Jesus’ glory and the centrality of the cross” (Blomberg 131). This may be due to Mark trying to balance and emphasize Jesus’ divinity and humanity. At crucial points throughout the book, Mark introduces the greek terms Χριστός (Christos) meaning Christ (ex. Mark 1:1; 8:29) and υἱοῦ θεοῦ (hyiou theou) meaning Son of God (ex. Mark 1:11; 3:11; 9:7; 15:39). Both of these terms are quivalent to the Hebrew word מָשִׁיחַ (māšǐaḥ) meaning Messiah.

Thus, Mark portrays Jesus as the Messiah, but he also presents this as something to be kept secret. More than any other writer, Mark tells of Jesus commanding people not to reveal his messianic identity. This may be due to Jesus attempting to prevent “premature enthusiasm to overwhelm his mission because popular christological expectation did not leave room for a suffering Messiah” (Blomberg 133). Furthermore, Mark advances the idea of a suffering, servant Messiah (related to Isa 52:13-53:12) when he portrays Jesus as saying, “…For even the Son of Man came not to be served but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many” (Mark 10:45). Mark emphasizes Jesus’ suffering for the sins of humanity (Blomberg 133).

While the Gospel of Luke has several of the same Christological themes as Matthew and Mark, Luke emphasizes Jesus’ humanity and compassion for social outcasts. This can be seen in his narratives which are focused on Samaritans. For example, unique to the Gospel of Luke is the recording of the parable of the Good Samaritan (Luke 10:25-37), and the story of the Samaritan leper returning to gives thanks (Luke 17:11-19). Luke often uses the phrase “tax collectors and sinners” to characterize those who gathered near Jesus and who were welcomed by him. In fact, only Luke tells stories of two tax collectors who are portrayed as upstanding (i.e. Luke 18:9-14; 19:1-10). Furthermore, Luke emphasizes Jesus’ concern for the poor by compiling teachings (Luke 14:7-24) and parables (Luke 16:19-31) that speak to the plight of the poor. One of the most powerful statements by Jesus concerning the poor is in Luke 4:18 where he claims to fulfill the mission of Isaiah’s servant “to proclaim good news to the poor” (Blomberg 164).

Another significant emphasis in the Gospel of Luke is Jesus as “Savior.” In Luke 2:11, the angel Gabriel announces, “For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Savior, who is Christ the Lord” (ESV). For Luke, the title of “Savior” is the most distinctive title for Jesus. Luke’s use of the greek words σωτήρ (sōtēr) meaning Savior, σωτηρία (sōtēria) and σωτηρίον (sōtērion) meaning salvation appear nowhere else in the Synoptic Gospels. Luke 19:10 sums up this emphasis stating, “For the Son of Man came to seek and to save the lost” (ESV) (Blomberg 165).

Works Cited

Blomberg, Craig. Jesus and the Gospels: An Introduction and Survey, 2nd edition. Broadman & Holman Publishing, 2009.